10 October 2019

Lynchers Made a Sieve of Ned Clark in 1888 Worth County

According to MonroeWorkToday, the lynching of Ned Clark is referenced in A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 and Fitzhugh Brundage's Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930.

Savannah Morning News (Georgia)
Wednesday, 27 June 1888 - pg. 2 [via Georgia Historic Newspapers]
LYNCHING IN WORTH.

Ned Clark Shot to Death by His Captors.

ATLANTA, June 26. -- A special to the Constitution from Albany, in this state, says that news reached that city to-day of the lynching of Ned Clark (colored) in Worth county. Clark was charged with attempting to commit rape upon a young white girl 13 years of age. His captors were conveying him to Irwin county, the scene of his crime. They returned without him, stating that he had attempted to escape while in the woods and was shot down. His body was found with bullets in it and the bushes around it were riddled with balls.


From NY Public LibraryA simple search on Google will give you the statistics. The Tuskegee Institute kept track of lynchings in America from 1882 - 1968. There were 581 in Mississippi, 531 in Georgia, 493 in Texas, 391 in Louisiana, 347 in Alabama, and so on. Total from all states: 4,743. That's more than one lynching and victim a week.

I feel a little like I should try to explain why I would give the horrible acts – those committed by the criminal, as well as those committed on the criminal – voice on this blog. There are no (at least to my knowledge) statistics showing the accuracy of the lynchers. How many times was an innocent person hung, riddled with bullets, and mutilated in the name of "justice?" I mean, we probably agree there are innocent people sitting in jail right now – with supposed checks and balances in place. Imagine when there were none. Shouldn't those innocent people be remembered?

Now, make no mistake, sometimes the lynching party "punished" the right person. As in, sometimes the true perpetrator was indeed apprehended – and then disposed of, often in a barbaric fashion. Even if you take the literal "eye for an eye" death penalty approach, I would not be surprised if that would have been an applicable punishment in only an infinitesimal number of cases. People were lynched for stealing, people were lynched for "insubordination," people were lynched for literally being in the wrong place at the wrong time. And let us not be cowards and leave out the racism debacle that lingers to this day. So another reason for giving voice to these past atrocities is in the same vein of "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."

As a family historian, I am saddened to think (1) these revolting deeds took place, and (2) while statistics are easy to find, the names and stories of the individual victims are much harder to locate. A list of lynching victims will unfortunately never be complete. I hope that in a small way, posts such as these will serve as a memorial to those who were victims of Judge Lynch and his frightful law.

09 October 2019

J. A. Willis Murdered. John Calhoun's Body Riddled as a Result.

Barnesville News-Gazette (Georgia)
23 May 1918
J. A. WILLIS MURDERED

Shot by Negro Farm Hand and Instantly Killed in Field.


Mr. John A. Willis, one of the most peaceable men, and an excellent citizen and farmer, living near Antioch church in Upson, was shot by a negro man Thursday morning and instantly killed. The negro also shot at Mr. Willis' brother, Mr. Arteman Willis, but fortunately did not hit him.

From the information received, it appears that the negro had recently come to this community from Jacksonville and had worked for Mr. Willis and some difference about work arose between them. Approached by Mr. Willis som words passed, when he shot Mr. Willis in the neck with a pistol.

A large posse was at once formed to hunt the negro, quite a number joining the posse from Barnesville. Every possible effort will be made to catch the murderer.

Mr. Willis...married Miss Greer Steed of this city, who, with several children, survive him...
Macon Telegraph (Georgia)
Saturday, 25 May 1918 [via GenealogyBank]
NEGRO IS KILLED TRYING TO ESCAPE

Pike County Posse Locates Murderer on Tip Given by Colored Citizen -- Police Chief Wounded.

Slayer of John Willis Found in Empty House Near Scene of Crime -- Body Is Riddled.


BARNESVILLE, May 24. -- John Calhoun at 11 o'clock this morning paid the penalty for the crime he committed yesterday when he killed John A. Willis, a popular white farmer of Upson. A small posse from this city shot his body full of holes, after he had sent a .38 bullet through the leg of Chief of Police Zack Evans and made a desperate effort to get other members of the party.

Early today a respectable negro gave citizens here a tip as to the location of Calhoun. Chief Evans at once headed a posse for the place of hiding, which was an old unoccupied house near the scene of the crime.

Jumps Out of Window.
When the house was surrounded and Calhoun located, he opened fire with his pistol, the first shot hitting Chief Evans, shooting then at the other parties. The fusilade [sic] of shots from the posse made the house so uncomfortable that the negro jumped out a window and was making off when scores of bullets pierced his body, causing almost instant death.

The body was brought here and turned over to an undertaker. The news spread fast and in a few hours hundreds from the surrounding communities were viewing the dead negro.

Wanted to Burn Body.
So intense was the feeling of the people from the neighborhood of Mr. Willis' home a number from theer [sic] talked of taking the body there and burning it. At one time they had taken the body from the undertaker's room to the streets, when appeals from citizens caused them to desist...For a while much excitement prevailed.

...The funeral of Mr. Willis was held this afternoon at Antioch Baptist church, of which he was a member, Rev. L. B. Harvey, of Forsyth, conducting the service. The burial occurred in the family lot in this city. Mrs. Willis and the several small children have been given every assurance of the sympathy of the people of the entire section.

08 October 2019

General Boyd Lynched in 1913 Walton County

When keeping the lynching quiet lessens the inconvenience for a community's citizens.
Residents of communities in which private lynchings occurred were quick to announce that local opinion opposed the lawlessness and that they should not be condemned for an act in which they played no part and of which they claimed to no nothing. But such condemnation amounted to little more than hand-wringing followed by a desire to forget the entire episode. J. Loy Harrison, a resident of Walton County, Georgia, summed up the attitude that prevailed in most communities. After a mob of twenty-five men lynched four blacks in 1946, Harrison implored "Just bury them quick. Go ahead and bury them. That's the best thing to do." [W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching in the New South, University of Illinois Press, 1993.]
Athens Banner (Georgia)
Tuesday, 25 November 1913 - pg. 5 [via Georgia Historic Newspapers]
LYNCHED

NEGRO DEALT SUMMARY PUNISHMENT FOR OFFENSE IN WALTON.


Word reached Athens only yesterday about a lynching which occurred in Walton county Saturday or Friday -- the affair having been kept from the papers as long as possible.

"General" Boyd, a negro, charged by members of the family of a young woman in Buncombe district with having entered her room at night, was taken out and his life cut short by swift and certain means.

Boyd once was sent up for two years for entering a home and seizing a white woman by the foot. He escaped a few days before his sentence was out, and was sent up again for a year. He had been free only a few days when he met his death at the hands of a quiet, but desperate and determined mob.



From NY Public LibraryA simple search on Google will give you the statistics. The Tuskegee Institute kept track of lynchings in America from 1882 - 1968. There were 581 in Mississippi, 531 in Georgia, 493 in Texas, 391 in Louisiana, 347 in Alabama, and so on. Total from all states: 4,743. That's more than one lynching and victim a week.

I feel a little like I should try to explain why I would give the horrible acts – those committed by the criminal, as well as those committed on the criminal – voice on this blog. There are no (at least to my knowledge) statistics showing the accuracy of the lynchers. How many times was an innocent person hung, riddled with bullets, and mutilated in the name of "justice?" I mean, we probably agree there are innocent people sitting in jail right now – with supposed checks and balances in place. Imagine when there were none. Shouldn't those innocent people be remembered?

Now, make no mistake, sometimes the lynching party "punished" the right person. As in, sometimes the true perpetrator was indeed apprehended – and then disposed of, often in a barbaric fashion. Even if you take the literal "eye for an eye" death penalty approach, I would not be surprised if that would have been an applicable punishment in only an infinitesimal number of cases. People were lynched for stealing, people were lynched for "insubordination," people were lynched for literally being in the wrong place at the wrong time. And let us not be cowards and leave out the racism debacle that lingers to this day. So another reason for giving voice to these past atrocities is in the same vein of "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."

As a family historian, I am saddened to think (1) these revolting deeds took place, and (2) while statistics are easy to find, the names and stories of the individual victims are much harder to locate. A list of lynching victims will unfortunately never be complete. I hope that in a small way, posts such as these will serve as a memorial to those who were victims of Judge Lynch and his frightful law.

07 October 2019

Negro Woman Mary Conley Lynched for Trying to Protect Her Son

According to MonroeWorkToday, the lynching of Mary Conley / Connelly is referenced in A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 and Fitzhugh Brundage's Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930. Her case is also recorded in Kerry Segrave's Lynchings of Women in the United States.

Atlanta Constitution (Georgia)
Thursday, 5 October 1916 - pg. 9
NEGRO WOMAN LYNCHED; HER SON SLEW FARMER

Negress Taken From Leary Guardhouse and Riddled With Bullets.


Arlington, Ga., October 4. -- (Special.) Mary Conley, the negro woman whose son, Sam Conley, killed E. M. Melvin, a prominent white planter, near here Monday, was taken from the guardhouse in Leary some time during the night and lynched. Her body, riddled with bullets, was found by the roadside by parties coming into Arlington during the early morning hours.

When Melvin reprimanded Sam Conley for the way the latter was neglecting his work the negro's mother showed resentment. It is claimed that Melvin then grappled with her, whereupon Sam Conley picked up an iron scale weight and struck the white man on the head. Melvin died a short time later.

Conley escaped, but his mother was captured and put in jail here.

The lynching was very quiet. The mob had no difficulty in breaking into the guardhouse, which was unguarded, the officers not anticipating trouble.

Conley Captured.
Albany, Ga., October 4. -- (Special.) -- Sam Conley was captured at Pretoria, in the western part of Dougherty county, last night by Joseph Tolbert, who turned the negro over to Sheriff Tarver. Conley entered Tolbert's store to buy food...
I wouldn't be surprised if Mr. Melvin physically "reprimanded" Sam, eliciting the "resentment" from his mother. Then Mr. Melvin put his hands on Mary, spurring the tragic events that followed.

Sam Conley was convicted of voluntary manslaughter the following year.


The following article was, I think, meant to denounce the lynching. The author didn't miss an opportunity to denigrate African Americans, though.

Augusta Chronicle (Georgia)
Sunday, 8 October 1916 - pg. 6 [via GenealogyBank]
Oh, Georgia! -- And Must You Stand Sponsor for This Also?

...If ever the story of a lynching carried on the face of it utter condemnation of and disgust for the mob, this one does...

A white farmer was "reprimanding" his negro farm boy, when the boy's mother "interfered"; whereupon the farmer "grappled" with her, and the woman's son then struck the farmer with an iron weight, which blow resulted in the farmer's death.

And for this a mob took the boy's mother from jail, where she has been placed -- though on what charge is not quite clear -- and shot her to death...

If, however, we abandon those discreet and diplomatic terms, and assume -- merely for sake of the argument, as well as in deference to our own common sense and experience -- that the farmer was whipping the negro boy, that the mother flew to his rescue and that the son, in return, went to his mother's aid, we shall, in all probability, have a better idea of just what occurred. And, perforce, we shall not fail to be impressed with the thought that the mother -- black and ignorant and but a few generations removed from the savage, as she was merely betrayed the traits of the mother-animal of all species.

As for the offspring well, he is a murderer, and the law will deal with him. Provided, of course, the mob gives the law a chance.

But the thought that will not down is this: That the mother-animal, even among the brutes, has been famed in song and story for defense of her offspring...

But it is for this no more, no less, in its last analysis -- that "another Georgie mob" has put a black mother to death; a negro mother who followed a mother's natural instinct, and "interfered."

God help us! we seem to go from bad to worse. And small wonder; for where the mob spirit is permitted to prevail, without even so much as a general public protest, who can say where it will stop?

Oh, we know there are those who will continue to say such protests as this are calculated to "encourage" the negroes. And, therefore, they themselves decline to protest, and even go so far as to condemn those who do.

But we have no patience with this sort of talk, and no fear of it. For we know, and such as they know, that to condemn the mob is not to defend its victims -- it is merely to defend the state of law and civilization.

...We do not believe that the most hardened defender of lynching will defend this killing even though the victim of it be a negro mother, instead of a mother bear...


From NY Public LibraryA simple search on Google will give you the statistics. The Tuskegee Institute kept track of lynchings in America from 1882 - 1968. There were 581 in Mississippi, 531 in Georgia, 493 in Texas, 391 in Louisiana, 347 in Alabama, and so on. Total from all states: 4,743. That's more than one lynching and victim a week.

I feel a little like I should try to explain why I would give the horrible acts – those committed by the criminal, as well as those committed on the criminal – voice on this blog. There are no (at least to my knowledge) statistics showing the accuracy of the lynchers. How many times was an innocent person hung, riddled with bullets, and mutilated in the name of "justice?" I mean, we probably agree there are innocent people sitting in jail right now – with supposed checks and balances in place. Imagine when there were none. Shouldn't those innocent people be remembered?

Now, make no mistake, sometimes the lynching party "punished" the right person. As in, sometimes the true perpetrator was indeed apprehended – and then disposed of, often in a barbaric fashion. Even if you take the literal "eye for an eye" death penalty approach, I would not be surprised if that would have been an applicable punishment in only an infinitesimal number of cases. People were lynched for stealing, people were lynched for "insubordination," people were lynched for literally being in the wrong place at the wrong time. And let us not be cowards and leave out the racism debacle that lingers to this day. So another reason for giving voice to these past atrocities is in the same vein of "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."

As a family historian, I am saddened to think (1) these revolting deeds took place, and (2) while statistics are easy to find, the names and stories of the individual victims are much harder to locate. A list of lynching victims will unfortunately never be complete. I hope that in a small way, posts such as these will serve as a memorial to those who were victims of Judge Lynch and his frightful law.

26 September 2019

Mob Burns John Lee Eberhart in 1921

"These upheavals of passion that make men lose their heads are calculated to destroy the very basis of our civilization. They are born of the devil." -- T. B. Stanford, pastor of the First Street Methodist Church in Macon, Georgia about 1922, denouncing the practice of lynching.

Jackson Herald (Jefferson, GA)
24 February 1921 - pg. 1 [via Georgia Historic Newspapers]
MOB BURNS NEGRO

Oconee County Negro Taken From Clarke County Jail And Lynched Near Scene of Crime; Accused of Killing Mrs. Walter Lee


With the lynching of John Lee Eberhart in Oconee county on Wednesday night of the last week by a mob of 3,000 people, the climax was reached in one of the most brutal, most heartless and most heart rending murders ever committeed [sic] in this section of Georgia.

On Wednesday morning at 8 o'clock Mrs. Walter E. Lee, age 24, who resides about three miles from Watkinsville on the Athens road, was shot to death in the yard of her home, barely fifty feet from the public highway, of the most traveled road in that section, both loads of shot entering her back, and a few scattered shots peppering her shoulders and neck.

Mrs. Lee was at home with her eighteen-months-old baby. Her husband and her father-in-law, John Lee, who also lived at the place, were at the Cord Mill, where they are employed. They had left early in the morning for the Cord Mill.

Two negroes, who were driving down the road, it is reported, heard shots just after they had passed the house. Their team became frightened and ran wildly down the road. They did not stop to investigate, they told N. H. Cartey, who lives down the road. Mr. Cartey and his brother, G. Cartey, immediately went to the scene of the crime, and found Mrs. Lee lying dead in the front yard of her home, about twenty-five feet to the left, and in front of the house.

A bushel measure was found overturned, with oats spilled out, about five feet in front of the out-house just to the left of the main dwelling, and it is supposed that Mrs. Lee had just come out of this house with feed for the cow, and seeing her assailant had attempted to escape. Her body was found lying about twenty feet from the out-house.

A shot-gun was found lying at the left rear-corner of the main dwelling, where it had apparently been thrown in the hurry to escape. This gun was identified by John Lee, father of Walter Lee, as one that had been stolen from him last Saturday, so he said.

The sheriffs of Oconee and Clarke counties were soon on the grounds, and with a large posse of citizens, immediately began to locate the guilty criminal.

From the beginning suspicion rested on a negro, John Lee Eberhart, because of several chains of circumstantial evidence -- the fitting of the negro's shoe into the tracks which led away from the scene of the crime across the field back of the house, the fact that he was the only negro in the section who was not accounted for Wednesday, the finding of the gun, which was identified by John Lee, father of Walter Lee, as one that was stolen from him last Saturday, the statement of Eberhart's wife that her husband had gone hunting last Sunday, but that he had no gun of his own, and the general reputation of the negro in the past. Also, the fact that he did not show up at his post of duty with the International Agricultural Corporation; and the fact that he went to the Lee home a few days previous and inquired where Mr. Lee was.

The negro was located in Athens about 2.30 o'clock in the afternoon, was arrested and placed in the Clarke county jail, secured the prisoner, and lynched him.

The Athens Banner stated:
"Late in the afternoon groups of men formed in and near the court house, and early in the evening the crowd swelled to not less than three thousand.

"Sheriff Jackson caused the court house to be locked, and took every precaution to protect the prisoner. Near eight o'clock the crowd grew restless, and when a leader ordered them to enter the court house a mad rush was made, and the big plate-glass windows and doors were broken, and the crowd rushed into the building. A number of men were carrying acetylene torches, while others had crowbars, axes and other instruments with which to make their way into the jail. While the sheriff was arguing with a crowd on the third floor, a number of men rushed the elevator and entered the corridor, they proceeded to the cell, where the negro was confined, and it was only a few minutes until they had entered the cell, and, chaining the negro, they dragged him to the elevator, and rushed him downstairs, where he was hurriedly taken to a waiting automobile, which carried him to the scene of the crime.

"Milledge avenue was a mass of automobiles and vehicles of all kinds. It gave the appearance of one mammoth white way, and for over an hour this avenue was lined with automobiles rushing to the scene where the proposed burning was to take place. For over a mile on the Watkinsville road cars were parked, and people alighted and walked for over a mile, the parking point being the nearest to the scene they could reach, the road being lined with machines.

"In the presence of five thousand men, the negro was chained to a pine tree, and dry kindling wood stacked around his person. When the preliminaries had been arranged, he was asked if he had any statement to make. The negro stated that he did not commit the crime. He stated that if he had, he would confess to it. Time and again the negro was given an opportunity to confess, but he stoutly declared his innocence. The torch was applied, and as the flames enveloped his body he was asked again to make a statement, and the last words he spoke was a positive denial of his guilt. However, the evidence was strong against him, and the determination of the crowd entered into the final disposition of his body by increasing the fire, which grew in high flames above his head.

"The torch was applied about 9.30 o'clock, and shortly after the flames had covered his body, the crowd slowly and quietly dispersed, leaving the ashes and charred remains in a field across the road from the home where the scene of the crime had been enacted."
Though it would be another decade before (as Amy Wood writes in Lynching and Spectacle) "forward-looking white Southerners were compelled to adopt the position that lynching was barbaric and disgraceful, even as they continued to defend white supremacy or rail against black criminality," there was some tepid backlash to the lynching of John Lee Eberhart:

Winston-Salem Journal (North Carolina)
Sunday, 20 February 1921 - pg. 2 [via GenealogyBank]
LYNCHING MOB IS SCORED BY JUDGE

Murder of Law Worse Than the Murder of Human Being
...

Atlanta, Ga., Feb. 19. -- Rewards totalling [sic] $3,000 for arrest and conviction of members of the mob that broke into jail at Athens, Ga., Wednesday night and burned John Lee Eberhardt, a negro, at the stake, were offered today by Gov. Dorsey.

...The Athens ministerial association in resolutions adopted demands an investigation of the entire affair, including responsibility of the officers having the negro in custody...

Clergy Take Action.
Demands of the ministerial association of Athens for an investigation of the storming of the jail here Wednesday night and subsequent burning of a negro near here were followed today by denunciations of the crime by David C. Barrow, chancellor of the University of Georgia and Andrew J. Cobb, formerly a justice of the State supreme court.

"This is a country where we depend for safety on law," sail [sic] Chancellor Barrow in an address to the student body. "The lawless acts of certain citizens Wednesday night must make each of us fear the future of our country." He added that information pointed to the negro's guilt of murder, but he deplored the mob's act.

After declaring that "the life of an excellent woman has been destroyed by a fiend," former Justice Cobb asserted in a signed statement that the negro burned was not shown to be guilty and asserted that "the murder of the law is a far graver offense than the murder of a human being..."
Finally, a curious note found in Frederick G. Detweiler's The Negro Press in the United States (pub. 1922):
...The Philadelphia American (February 19, 1921) has this to exhibit as evidence of the importance white people attach to the Negro newspaper:

"ATHENS, GA., Feb. 17. -- John Lee Eberhardt, your staff correspondent here, was taken from the local jail and burned at the stake...

It is believed by many here that advantage was taken of the situation to "get" Eberhardt for circulating the Philadelphia American. He had been warned on several occasions..."


From NY Public LibraryA simple search on Google will give you the statistics. The Tuskegee Institute kept track of lynchings in America from 1882 - 1968. There were 581 in Mississippi, 531 in Georgia, 493 in Texas, 391 in Louisiana, 347 in Alabama, and so on. Total from all states: 4,743. That's more than one lynching and victim a week.

I feel a little like I should try to explain why I would give the horrible acts – those committed by the criminal, as well as those committed on the criminal – voice on this blog. There are no (at least to my knowledge) statistics showing the accuracy of the lynchers. How many times was an innocent person hung, riddled with bullets, and mutilated in the name of "justice?" I mean, we probably agree there are innocent people sitting in jail right now – with supposed checks and balances in place. Imagine when there were none. Shouldn't those innocent people be remembered?

Now, make no mistake, sometimes the lynching party "punished" the right person. As in, sometimes the true perpetrator was indeed apprehended – and then disposed of, often in a barbaric fashion. Even if you take the literal "eye for an eye" death penalty approach, I would not be surprised if that would have been an applicable punishment in only an infinitesimal number of cases. People were lynched for stealing, people were lynched for "insubordination," people were lynched for literally being in the wrong place at the wrong time. And let us not be cowards and leave out the racism debacle that lingers to this day. So another reason for giving voice to these past atrocities is in the same vein of "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."

As a family historian, I am saddened to think (1) these revolting deeds took place, and (2) while statistics are easy to find, the names and stories of the individual victims are much harder to locate. A list of lynching victims will unfortunately never be complete. I hope that in a small way, posts such as these will serve as a memorial to those who were victims of Judge Lynch and his frightful law.

24 August 2019

Virginia O. Crook and Those Her Family Enslaved - #TheyHadNames

This post was originally published at the Southern Graves blog. I placed it there initially because I had previously written about the symbolism on Virginia Osborne Crook's (d. 1859) tombstone, and an "Administrator's Sale" advertisement would be a continuation of the process of death. If interested, you can find what grapes, wheat, and a "diving" dove represent here.

The information seems to me just as suitable, maybe more so, for this space. As stated in the original, maybe this can be of help to someone researching an African American line in Harris County, Georgia pre-Emancipation.

I've read many ads for these type of sales, but not many (any?) with such detail. Each of the enslaved is listed by name and a brief description of their "specialty" of forced labor is provided.

Columbus Daily Enquirer (Georgia)
Friday, 25 November 1859 - pg. 4 [via GenealogyBank]
VALUABLE
Negroes at Administrator's Sale.

IN compliance with an order of the Court of Ordinary of Harris county, I will sell at public outcry on the first Tuesday in January next, in the town of Hamilton, all the Negroes belonging to the Estate of the late Miss Virginia Crook, to-wit:

Mumford a man about 40 years old, a blacksmith; Maria, his wife, about 38 years old, No 1 house woman and cook, washer and ironer, and 3 children, Bulger a boy 5 years old, May a girl 4, and Tom 1 year old.

Lard a man 40 years old, field hand; Ann, his wife, 35 years old, house and field hand, and their child Della, a girl 12 years old, very likely.

Caroline, field hand, about 28 years old, and her 2 children, 2 and 4 years old.

Jane, 25 years old, good house servant, sews well and her boy Alac, 10 years old.

Little Maria, 17 years old, No 1 house girl and chamber maid, has also worked in the field.

Rass 22 years old, fair carpenter, good driver and house servant, very likely.

Jacob, good sawyer and field hand, about 37 years old.

Raney, about 35 years of age, and her 8 children, Philis, Adeline, Jim, Lizzie, Cordelia, Stephen, Harry, and baby -- ranging in ages from 1 to 15, and all that are large enough field hands.

Liza, about 48 years old, an excellent old woman in the house.

These Negroes are very likely and qualities good.

Terms -- 12 months' credit with interest from date, and approved security. Sold for a division among the heirs-at-law. D. P. HILL, Adm'r.
Virginia was a daughter of Maj. Osborne Crook (1796-1851). In his will dated 15 March 1851, Mr. Crook bequeathed and devised a portion of his "real and personal" property to his children. Virginia Osborne Crook was one of the named children. So one or more of the enslaved individuals listed above could have once been part of his estate.

P.S. I have posted names of enslaved persons (infrequently, I'll admit) to the blogs I author, and have today decided to begin a Beyond Kin project. If you are a researcher that ever connects with an enslaved population, I recommend checking them out. And please help where you can.

21 July 2019

20 Georgians Die Violently Over 1940 Labor Day Weekend

One of those newspaper articles I feel is important to share with the genealogy community.

Columbus Daily Enquirer (Georgia)
Tuesday, 3 September 1940 -- pg. 1 [via GenealogyBank]
20 GEORGIANS DIE VIOLENTLY

Drownings and Auto Wrecks Take Heavy Toll Over Week End

BY THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The number of Georgians killed in accidents over the Labor Day week-end climbed to at least 20 as drownings and automobile wrecks took a heavy toll...

Joyce Royal, two-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Royal, who live near Millhaven, died at Sylvania of injuries received Sunday afternoon. She was fatally hurt when she apparently opened the back door of the car in which she was riding and fell out.

Joseph Daniel Pritchett, 22-year-old Thomaston youth, was fatally injured yesterday in a highway crash two miles from Griffin.

A 37-year-old negro chauffeur was killed instantly yesterday when he was impaled on an iron fence post after falling from the second-floor of a building in Atlanta. A Manchester negro was killed in a two-car crash between Raleigh and Manchester.

R. E. McDonald, 43, superintendent of industries at the federal penitentiary, drowned in the surf at St. Simon's Island, Ga., yesterday.

Drowning also took the life of Mrs. Elizabeth E. Bishop of Columbus, Ga., yesterday while she was bathing at Daytona Beach, Fla.

Joe Sherman, 30, of Augusta, was killed last night when a car in which he was riding overturned after leaving the highway seven miles east of Thompson.

Marshall P. Adams, 43-year-old Chamblee Carpenter, met death yesterday when struck by a train on the outskirts of Chamblee.

Dr. W. E. Hutto, 36, Atlanta physician, and Harvey C. Lloyd, Atlanta insurance salesman, were killed in an automobile accident Saturday night near Demopolis, Ala.

At Wrightsville, Harvey Hatcher, 30, parts manager for a Wrightsville automobile firm, was fatally injured Saturday night when his service wreck car left the highway.

Miss Irene Stancil, 19, of Eastonollee, Ga., was killed near Tocoa Saturday when a car in which she was riding locked bumpers with another and overturned.

Three negroes were killed near Midville Sunday when their car left the road.

Four other negroes were drowned Saturday afternoon when an automobile in which they were riding hit a soft shoulder of the highway and ran into Brushby creek, four miles south of Keysville.

A Bruke [sic] county negro girl was fatally injured when a car struck the mule she was riding.
(How infuriating is the practice of not dignifying "negroes" with the publishing of their given names?)

*Note: If you are interested in Mr. Harvey Hatcher (1910-1940) and the family he married into (wife was Reba ABEL), you will find a descendant report of interest here.